Modern Quality Concepts

Modern Quality Concepts

QCFI Hyderabad Chapter

Quality Concepts Under TQM Umbrella

All good organisations big or small, for profit or non-profit, public or private sector, new or old, well -established or not, operate with following basic premise :

Become capable of creating long term value for all its stakeholders and they do this by:
  • Developing and growing, by anticipating and meeting their external customer's requirements for products and services, all the time.
  • Becoming and being operationally efficient and effective internally, all the time.

A number of concepts, methodologies, tools and techniques that have emerged in the last 50 to 60 years have pushed the frontiers of Quality from 'Small q to Big Q' as defined by Dr. Joseph Moses Juran. A useful framework to understand the positioning of these developments is available in the 'Spiral of Progress in Quality' given by Dr. Juran. Some of the concepts and methodologies have expanded in their scope and coverage, as they evolved and practitioners learnt to apply them to different aspects of working of an organisation and they have been found to be beneficial.

It will be of interest to find out, to what extent such organisations have changed their 3 S's and 3 P's (Strategy, Structure and Systems and Purpose, Process and People) to get the full advantage of these developments.Most of the concepts, methodologies, tools and techniques can be assigned to (a) or (b), described earlier; also they are seen to make an impact on the whole or parts or aspects in Juran's 'Quality Progress Spiral'.

# Concept Method Techniques Primary Purpose Parts impacted in Quality School
1 Policy Management and Deployment Vertical and horizontal alignment of goals and Objectives of organisation/ functions/individuals As a management process, the total spiral is impacted
2 Bench Marking Learn from the best, to adopt and change performance Any part/component of the spiral can be impacted based on priorities/strategic requirements.
3 Five S Shape basic attitude towards quality Initially in manufacture-now in all places including services.
4 Quality Improvement Teams/Cross functional teams Managerial/supervisory persons involvement in addressing vital few issues/ problems Initially in manufactured - products industries, spread to pure services sector
5 Quality Circle Front-line employees development and contribution in useful many problems Initially in production; Now in other functions also. Manufacturing and service organisations/public utilities and services too
6 Total Productive Maintenance Improving overall equipment effectiveness Initially in plants; Now hardware/office equipment too;also now embracing the 'ZERO' level goals
7 Single Minute Exchange of Dies Drastic Reduction in change-over time of dies etc. In production,testing and design
8 Poka -Yoke and Source inspection Mistake-proof, at source-aim for zero quality control Initially in manufacture; can be done in other aspects also
9 Just-in-Time (Kanban) Production management attuned to market needs Both in service and manufacturing sectors, around all parts of the spiral.
10 Six Sigma Increase in Sigma level for the benefit of both provider and costumer Any part of the spiral,especially those having external customers and suppliers interface; design/ plan focus
11 Quality function deployment Fully understanding and satisfying customer requirements and build into design. All components involved in plan,design (for research till production)
12 Taguchi Techniques For robust products with improved quality at better profitability Focuses on the design aspects (off-line and on-line for manufactured products)
13 ISO 9000:2000 Conformance,improvement and customer focus As a 'system - approach' the total spiral is impacted
14 ISO 14000 Eco-system:minimize negative impact;improve and preserve As a 'system - approach' the total spiral is impacted